We have often noted the importance of various phenomena, including the agglomerated fat matrix and the size of ice crystals and air bubbles, to the sensory appeal and structural properties of ice cream. Key to managing these phenomena is a complex set of highly variable (sometimes unknown) functionalities.
Any given ingredient may offer benefits to a specific marketing promise while controlling acceptability through the behavior of water and fat. As complex new ingredients are introduced, much remains to be understood relevant to their influences on physical/chemical properties. Furthermore, complexity is introduced by the effects of freeze concentration.