The search for new alternatives for pasteurizing and processing milk has led food scientists and technologists to use preservation and processing factors other than heat to ensure microbiological safety and to preserve the quality characteristics of the food.
Generally during commercial production of milk products such as cream, yogurt and butter, the milk is subjected to high temperatures for a set period of time so as to render it microbiologically safe. In spite of being a very efficient process to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms, it may also result in flavor modification, color change and loss of nutrients. And a study1 indicated that at high-temperature short-time pasteurization, 72 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds, Listeria monocytogenes can survive; that is the FDA’s requirement to pasteurize milk. High temperature also adversely affects the texture due to the formation of new toxic substances that are formed as a result of temperature-catalyzed reactions or modification of the existing macro molecules (https://tinyurl.com/yckzveem). Other changes that might occur in milk as a result of exposure to high temperatures are protein denaturation, loss of some vitamins such as vitamin B and non-enzymatic browning. Additionally, the equipment for pasteurization is somewhat complicated; if proper cleaning is not practiced, it could lead to the spoilage of milk.