Taking their lumps

Nestlé, French researchers seek to smooth out lumps and bumps in beverages

How a water droplet spreads over a non-crystalline substrate strongly depends on the amount of water absorbed and on the softness of the substrate.

By Nestle

Optimal dissolution of powders is critical for providing consumers with a smooth and appealing beverage that ensures adequate delivery and uptake of important nutrients. Unfortunately, incomplete dissolution, with concomitant formation of lumps, can arise during the development of new, nutritious powdered food products. The mechanisms underlying the problem are complex and have, hitherto, been poorly understood.

In the frame of the collaboration between the Nestlé Research Center (NRC), Lausanne, Switzerland and the ESPCI Paris Tech (École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles) Paris, France, scientists have discovered a novel physical mechanism by which water wets and then dissolves soluble solids.

The findings are a major advance in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the dissolution of soluble powders. The results of the study have been published in the journal Physical Review Letters.
Successful dissolution of a powder is dependent on the physical and chemical nature of both the substrate and the solvent. In the current study, the scientists examined the contact between a droplet of water and a thin layer of a long chain sugar, coated on a smooth surface. The various sugars used in the study were non-crystalline “amorphous” sugars that lack an organized molecular structure and as such, can easily undergo a change of state.

Two synchronized video cameras simultaneously measured the angle of contact, as well as the velocity, of the water droplet as it spread over the surface of the sugar layer. The absorption and diffusion of the water in the sugarcoating were also measured by analyzing the color changes of reflected light. This study shows for the first time that the manner in which a water droplet spreads over a non-crystalline substrate, such as maltodextrin, strongly depends on the amount of water absorbed and on the softness of the substrate in the immediate vicinity of the water droplet.

The current work is an important step towards mastering the dissolution of powdered food products. The quantitative theory which was developed will allow the conditions of dissolution of different soluble substrates to be predicted with greater accuracy. As a consequence, this will allow the development of a wider range of products that are not only nutritious but more pleasurable for the consumer.

Article Reference
Julien Dupas, Emilie Verneuil, Maxime Van Landeghem, Bruno Bresson, Laurent Forny, Marco Ramaioli, François Lequeux, Laurence Talini. Physical Review Letters 2014. Glass transition accelerates the spreading of polar solvents on a soluble polymer.

Did you enjoy this article? Click here to subscribe to Dairy Foods Magazine. 
You must login or register in order to post a comment.



Image Galleries

Bel Brands, Brookings, S.D.

The 170,000-square-foot facility on 48 acres in Brookings has the capacity of producing more than 22 million pounds of cheese annually. That is approximately 1.5 million Mini Babybel portions every day. It makes Original (a Gouda type cheese), Light and Mozzarella.


This photo gallery contains additional, unpublished photos of dairy processing facilities featured in Dairy Foods magazine. To view more Behind the Scenes galleries go to our archives page!

3/31/15 2:00 pm EST

Raising the bar with in-line mixing and blending technologies: high output with flexibility and low costs

In this webinar, you will be introduced to advanced in-line blending, dosing and mixing technologies that offer high flexible productions, reduced product losses, shorter batch times, uniform products, and reduced ingredient costs. As a result, Food Manufacturers can optimize their productions and increase their profitability.

Dairy Foods Magazine

march dairy foods

2015 March

The cheese issue: A look inside Bel Brands; Karoun Dairies' success; A preview of the WCIC Cheese Show

Table Of Contents Subscribe


What is your favorite way to eat cheese?
View Results Poll Archive


Tharp & Young on Ice Cream: An Encyclopedic Guide to Ice Cream Science and Technology

An at once an all-inclusive guide to the meaning of hundreds of technical terms and ideas needed for ice cream manufacturing, as well as a practical introduction to the ingredients, freezing methods, flavoring, and packaging of ice cream, sherbet, sorbet, gelato, frozen yogurts, novelties and many other kinds of frozen desserts.

More Products

Clear Seas Research

Clear Seas ResearchWith access to over one million professionals and more than 60 industry-specific publications, Clear Seas Research offers relevant insights from those who know your industry best. Let us customize a market research solution that exceeds your marketing goals.


Facebook logo 40px 2-12-13 Twitter logo 40px 2-12-13  YouTube logo 40px 2-12-13  LinkedIn logo 40px 2-12-13google plus

Dairy Foods Buyers Guide

cover df july 2013Resource for buyers in the dairy processing industry to find information on the leading suppliers and manufacturers.

Find Ingredients, Equipment, Distribution, R&D and More.

Start Your Search Today.